Carbon capture, utilization and storage, CO₂ as a resource

Our projects for CO₂ capture, storage and utilisation, a set of technologies essential for reducing emissions.

Return CO₂ underground or use it as raw material

CO2 Capture Utilisation and Storage (CCUS) technological supply chain exploits the possibility of intercepting carbon dioxide emissions from industrial activities.

Once captured, that same CO₂ can be:

Injected into depleted hydrocarbon fields and trapped permanently (Carbon Capture and Storage - CCS).
Used as a raw material for new, less impactful production cycles (Carbon Capture and Utilisation - CCU).

An indispensable contribution to the decarbonisation of industry

Carbon capture and storage (CCS) is a solution that is currently available to reduce emissions in so-called hard to abate sectors, such as cement plants, steel mills, chemical plants and paper mills. In these sectors, in addition to high energy consumption, a significant part of carbon dioxide emissions is linked to the industrial process itself, regardless of the energy source used. To get an idea of their impact, it is suffice to say that in Italy they contribute to around 20% of the country's total emissions. At present, CCUS technologies are the only economically viable solution to eliminate or substantially reduce energy and process emissions. 

 

The International Energy Agency (IEA) and other international organisations consider CO2 storage and reuse technologies to be indispensable for achieving the Net Zero target. This is why we have made it an element of our decarbonisation pathway, pursuing CCS projects and supporting research in CCU.

CO2 Monitoring: Robotic Technologies in Support of CCUS

Eni's approach to CCUS also includes monitoring, before, during, and after the injection of CO2 into the reservoir. These activities, carried out through sensor networks and the use of robotic systems, cover the surface, subsurface and offshore environment.

The HERCCULES international research project

In 2023 we started the international research project HERCCULES, which is supported by us and other partners and coordinated by the Energy and Environment Laboratory Piacenza (LEAP). The initiative is financed as part of the Horizon Europe framework programme with European funds amounting to approximately thirty million euros. The aim of the project is to develop innovative COcapture technologies for the cement and waste-to-energy sectors by setting up demonstration plants in two cement plants and one waste-to-energy plant located in Northern Italy and in Greece.

 

Our goal in CCS

Carbon Capture and Storage is an important tool to support hard-to-abate industries in reducing their emissions. This is the target we have set for 2050.

~50
Mton/y

CO₂ storage target in 2050 ᵃ

Note:

a) CCUS services for third parties are included

The role of CCS according to the Zero Carbon Technology Roadmap Study

In 2023, the strategic study Zero Carbon Technology Roadmap - Carbon Capture and Storage: a strategic lever for the decarbonization and competitiveness of Italy' was presented by The European House - Ambrosetti, in cooperation with Eni and Snam. It showed how a technology-neutral approach is essential to achieving decarbonization targets at European and national level. 

 

Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is particularly considered indispensable to reduce emissions from hard-to-abate industries, preserving crucial economic sectors. CCS will also play a key role in the electricity sector, in the production of low-carbon hydrogen and, eventually, in offsetting residual emissions and reaching the Net Zero target by 2050. The process of combining environmental, social, economic and industrial policy sustainability objectives is fundamental to Italy's and Europe's strategic vision. This scenario makes the Ravenna CCS Hub project key, with a total storage capacity estimated at over 500 million tonnes, as an opportunity to position Italy as a reference country for CCS in Southern Europe.

 

To enable the full development of CCS, coherent regulatory schemes capable of reconciling decarbonization, economic competitiveness and employment aspects need to be identified and promoted through integrated planning and support mechanisms to ensure economic sustainability throughout the supply chain.

CCS in Europe

The operational, under construction and development projects surveyed in the Zero Carbon Technology Roadmap document. Carbon Capture & Storage: a strategic lever for the decarbonization and competitiveness of Italy.

3

Commercial CCS projects operational in Europe

16

CCS projects being built in Europe

44

CCS projects under development in Europe

Eni research in CCU

We support research and innovation across the entire supply chain of CO2 capture, storage and utilisation. Regarding the possibility of utilisation (CCU), in particular, we are working on a mineralisation technology that allows carbon dioxide to be 'recycled' in the production of Supplementary Cementitious Material (SCM) suitable for the formulation of Portland-type cements, with a high standard for use in the construction industry. The reaction at the base of the process, which involves the combination of CO2 with minerals containing silicates, occurs spontaneously in nature but over geological timescales. Eni's innovation consists in having developed a technology that accelerates the reaction to a few hours and gives the product properties that make it suitable for the formulation of cements.



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