The history of the neutrino is probably the best particle physics has to over. This tiny element is involved in every hypothesis about the origin of the universe, as well as its eventual demise. It’s still enough of a conundrum to make explaining it a hard task, but it’s increasingly looking like the key to the many mysteries that still shroud the universe. There are a large and growing number of laboratories around the world putting their research into chasing this shady little particle. There’s the recent experiment T2K (Tokai to Kamioka) in Japan and the work at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in New Mexico, in the United States.
Japanese research seems to be telling us that neutrinos can explain why the universe exists, including us humans, tiny agglomerations of molecules blessed with biological life and conscience that we are. American scientists, meanwhile, are trying to shed light on how much more mystery is out there, in the form of dark matter and dark energy. These components, taken all together, would make up 95% of the universe. You could not do without them, not without dismissing every theory so far made and, even if only partly, proved through experiments.