We have several ongoing projects relating to CCS - “Carbon Capture and Storage” - and CCU - “Carbon Capture and Utilization” - under the supervision of the Research Centre of San Donato Milanese and the Renewable Energy and Environmental R&D Centre in Novara. Overall, we can achieve a potential for avoided emissions corresponding to around 15 MTPA of CO2 per year from 2030, of which Eni's share is 7 million. In relation to the technologies, with regards to the “Capturing” stage, we are developing systems that use ionic liquids that are more efficient than conventional amine-based liquids. Where “Storage” is concerned, thanks to our key expertise in geology, we are using an integrated approach to capture, transport, fluid-to-rock interaction and monitoring studies relating to the geological storage of CO2. On the operations front, we want to create the world's largest CO2 storage hub off the coast of Ravenna, taking advantage of depleted deposits and disused assets in the area. The range of technologies we are developing for the “Utilization” stage, meanwhile, is somewhat more complex, with the main projects in this domain relating to microalgae biofixation and the conversion to methanol. Other avenues of research are focusing on ways of using CO2 in the production of polymers (such as polycarbonates) and chemically fixing it in mining residues to produce building materials. One larger-scale project in particular also aims to capture CO2 directly on board vehicles.