Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions

We have been committed to reducing GHG emissions for years: the results we have obtained prove the effectiveness of our Net Zero strategy.

Eni has historically been committed to reducing its direct GHG emissions and was among the first in its industry to set a series of targets in 2015 aimed at improving the GHG emissions performance of the assets it operates, with specific indicators illustrating the progress achieved to date in terms of reducing GHG emissions into the atmosphere. In addition to these, starting from 2020 Eni has included indicators calculated on an equity basis, which chart its path towards carbon neutrality in both absolute (Net GHG Lifecycle Emissions) and intensity terms (Net Carbon Intensity).

Verifying GHG emissions

Eni has been verifying its GHG emissions since 2006 through a third-party certifier as part of its sustainability reporting and, since 2011, also through dedicated testing. To ensure even greater robustness on data that are of strategic importance to the company, as of 2019 Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions related to operations are subject to reasonable assurance, while Scope 3 emissions and equity-based metrics are subject to limited assurance. The “Statement on GHG accounting and reporting - year 2022” and the associated assurance report are published in the addendum Eni for 2022 - Sustainability Performance.

Eni has adopted an approach inspired by lifecycle analysis as the most suitable and representative for tracing progress towards carbon neutrality. Accounting of GHG emissions from Eni’s value chains refers to a distinctive proprietary methodology that allows us to obtain an integrated view of Scope 1+2+3 GHG emissions related to all energy products sold by Eni. 

Below is data showing the performance of main equity indicators:

Net GHG Lifecycle Emissions

The indicator refers to all Scope 1, 2 and Scope 3 emissions associated with energy activities and products sold by Eni, along their value chain and net of offsets mainly from Natural Climate Solutions and from the application of technological solutions. In 2022, the indicator decreased by about 8% compared to 2021, mainly driven by the decline in upstream production and gas sales in the GGP sector.

Net Carbon Intensity
This indicator is calculated as the ratio between absolute net GHG emissions (Scope 1, 2 and 3) along the value chain of energy products and the amount of energy included in them. In 2022, it was essentially stable compared to 2021 (-0.4%); the trend is influenced by the increase in renewable energy production (+160% vs. 2021), partly offset by the reduction in GGP gas sales.

These were complemented by specific indicators for monitoring operational emissions (Scope 1+2):

Net Carbon Footprint Upstream
The indicator considers Scope 1+2 emissions from upstream assets operated by Eni and third parties, net of offsets mainly from Natural Climate Solutions and from the application of technological solutions. In 2022, the indicator decreased by around 11% compared to 2021 in relation to lower emissions connected with lower Upstream production and compensation through carbon credits, which in 2022 amount to 3 MtCO2eq. The credits are linked to Natural Climate Solutions (NCS) projects to halt deforestation.

Eni's Net Carbon Footprint
This indicator considers Scope 1+2 emissions from Eni and third-party operations, net of offsets mainly from Natural Climate Solutions. In 2022, the indicator decreased by around 11% in relation to lower emissions connected with the Upstream and Power businesses and compensation through carbon credits, which in 2022 amount to 3 MtCO2eq.

Overall, direct GHG Scope 1 emissions from the assets operated by Eni in 2022 amounted to 39.4 million tonnes of CO2eq., a slight reduction compared to 2021, mainly due to the decrease of emissions in the upstream, power and chemicals sectors, partially offset by an increase in the transport and gas liquefaction sector. Indirect GHG Scope 2 Emissions decreased by about 3% in 2022 compared to 2021 due to lower consumption in the Chemicals sector (new Porto Marghera plant configuration). These emissions are related to the purchase of energy from third parties for the consumption of the operated assets and are marginal for Eni as electricity is generated mainly through its own installations.

Considering its high climate-changing power and its recognised role in terms of short- to medium-term global warming mitigation opportunities, the topic of methane emissions has assumed central importance in the international climate debate.

We have confirmed our commitment to keeping Upstream emission intensity below 0.2%. A new emission reduction target will be set after the completion of a measurement campaign at operated assets in 2023. In addition, Eni continues in its commitment to progressively optimising its monitoring and reporting processes for the reduction of methane emissions at the facilities it operates. In 2022, Eni's methane emissions were 49.6 kton CH4, down from 2022, also thanks to the periodic LDAR (Leak Detection And Repair) campaigns.

Concerning upstream operated assets, at the end of 2022 the overall reduction of the Scope 1 GHG emission intensity compared to 2014 is around 23%, slightly behind schedule, mainly due to the COVID pandemic and local factors in Libya.  Flaring down and CCS projects in Libya are being sanctioned and their impact on the target achievement date will be evaluated. Compared to 2021, the index slightly increased mainly in relation to the exit of Vår Energi from the operated domain.

The volumes of hydrocarbons sent for routine flaring decreased by around 9% in 2022 compared to 2021, mainly due to energy efficiency and flaring down activities in Egypt and Nigeria.

In 2022, Eni continued with its investment plan both in projects aimed directly at increasing energy efficiency in assets and in development and revamping projects with significant effects on the energy performance of its operations.

The energy efficiency actions undertaken during the year resulted in an actual primary energy saving of around 422 ktoe/year compared to baseline consumption, mainly from upstream projects (about 84%) and with a benefit in terms of emissions reduction of about 1 million tonnes of CO2eq. If Scope 2 emissions, i.e. emissions from purchased electricity and heat, are also taken into account, the net CO2 savings from energy-saving projects amount to around 1.1 million tonnes of CO2eq. In 2022, Eni’s consumption of raw primary sources decreased also in relation to lower production levels compared to 2021. The total energy consumed was 517 million GJ: upstream 226 million GJ, Power 161 million GJ, R&M 60 million GJ and Chemical 55 million GJ.

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