Global energy scenarios

Limiting GHG emissions into the atmosphere and at the same time meeting the growing energy needs arising from the growth of population and economy, while ensuring adequate access to energy, are the main challenges facing the energy sector.


The dual challenge we are facing

The global energy landscape will face major challenges in the coming years as it balances two fundamental needs:

  1. the growth in energy consumption resulting from the growth in population and the global economy and the need to ensure universal access to energy
  2. the urgency of tackling climate change by acting immediately on all available levers and accelerating the transition process towards a more sustainable mix.

The energy transition may follow different paths, but the commitment of governments, including through the identification of clear and uniform policies, and the evolution of technology will be key elements in making it possible.

Eni for 2021 - A just transition
Eni for 2021 - A just transition

Energy demand between past and future

In the last thirty years, energy demand has grown sharply, mainly driven by developing Countries, while OECD Countries have experienced substantially stable/slightly decreasing consumption which, in terms of mix, has seen an increase in renewables and natural gas (the only growing fossil source). Against this changing mix, OECD Countries have seen emissions remain broadly stable, while in non-OECD Countries the increasing use of fossil fuels to meet rising energy needs has resulted in a fairly sharp rise in emissions.

The path to energy transition is made even more challenging by the constantly evolving scenario: on the one hand, demographic growth in non-OECD Countries triggers a significant increase in energy demand, on the other combating climate change requires a reduction in atmospheric greenhouse gas emissions. Population growth will result in an increase of 1.9 billion people by 2050, about 60% of whom will be concentrated in Africa and a fifth in India and South-East Asia.

Eni's commitment

Eni’s business model envisages a decarbonisation path towards carbon neutrality by 2050 based on an approach focused on emissions generated throughout the life cycle of energy products and on a set of actions that will lead to the total decarbonisation of processes and products by 2050. This path, based mainly on existing technologies, will allow Eni to totally reduce its carbon footprint, both in terms of net emissions and net carbon intensity

Aware of the ongoing climate emergency, Eni wants to be a leader of the energy sector's transition with a long-term strategy towards carbon neutrality in 2050, in line with scenarios compatible with keeping global warming within the 1.5°C threshold at the end of the century.

In 2022, Eni relaunched its strategy, with a distinctive approach that leverages proprietary and breakthrough technologies, new business models and close collaboration with stakeholders.


Global population growth (source: United Nations)

source: UN, World population prospect 2019, 2020 revision
global population in 2021
source: UN, World population prospect 2019, 2020 revision
global population expected by 2030
9.7 Billion people by 2050
source: UN, World population prospect 2019, 2020 revision
in global population in 30 years
source: UN, World population prospect 2019, 2020 revision
60%of growth
will take place in Africa

Universal access to energy (source: International Energy Agency)

source: International Energy Agency (2021), World Energy Outlook 2021, IEA, Paris
people without access to electricity in 2030
source: International Energy Agency (2021), World Energy Outlook 2021, IEA, Paris
people without access to clean cooking in 2030
750 Million people without access to electricity today
accounting for 2/3 of global energy consumption
global population lived in cities in 2021
growing especially fast in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia
expected population living in cities by 2050

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World Energy Review: Eni's report on the global energy sector

Now available, with updated data on oil, natural gas, renewables and critical minerals, is the definitive version of the 21st edition of the World Energy Review, the annual statistical review edited by Eni. The Energy Review is the industry's point of reference, a tool that analyses the main trends in the energy sector, of particular relevance in this period of change and new balances that are reflected in energy security. It reflects the evolution of the sector, from conventional sources to renewables, devoting increasing space to strategic topics such as natural gas and critical minerals.


World Energy Review 2022

The annual energy review, definitive, modular and interactive, extends to the critical minerals at the heart of the energy transition.

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Eni’s transformation to achieve Net Zero

Our point of reference is the Glasgow Climate Act approved in 2021 during the 26th Conference of the Parties (COP26), which, by implementing the Paris Agreement, reaffirmed the importance of limiting the temperature increase to 1.5°C compared to pre-industrial times. According to the IEA, to achieve this goal net GHG emissions from the energy sector must be halved by 2040, reduced to about a quarter of the current level by 2050, and to zero by 2070 (Net Zero). Eni's Strategic Plan provides for an accelerated process to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 and sets out a series of intermediate stages, including -35% absolute emissions by 2030, -80% absolute emissions by 2040 and Net Zero scope 1+2 Eni emissions by 2035. To meet these targets, the entire company is involved in a process of deep industrial transformation


Eni’s evolution

We want to offer decarbonized products and services, achieving a reduction in scope 1+2+3 emissions of 35% by 2030 and 80% by 2040 (vs. 2018), thereby speeding up our process towards Net Zero.

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