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Notes and Methods

 

The sources of the data are: Arab Oil & Gas Directory, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Cedigaz, Enerdata, Eni, International Energy Agency, IHS Energy, International Monetary Fund, Italian Ministry for Economic Development, Oil & Gas Journal, Parpinelli TECNON, PIW, Platt’s, Wood MacKenzie and other official sources.


Blank spaces in the tables indicate that the figure was not available, zero indicates a figure that is not significant (except for the chapter “International Trade”).


Total may differ from the sum of the individual figures as a result of rounding up/down.


The figures for “Reserves” refer to proven reserves as at 1st January. The figures for other chapters indicate annual averages.


In the chapters “Production” and “Consumption” of oil, in some countries figures may include oil from non conventional sources and others sources of supply.


The difference between the Consumption and the Production of oil is given by the change in stocks, the processing gains obtained in refining and the amount of biofuels which is not included in Production.


Gas Production, Consumption, Exports and Imports are assessed by using the same calorific value per cubic metre (39 MJ/cm, GCV), in order to make data among countries comparable.


In the chapter “Production” of natural gas, the figures concern traded production and do not include quantities of burnt, dispersed or re-injected gas.


The data in the chapter “Reserves/Production ratios” have been obtained by dividing the reserves of a given year by production for the same year. The calculation of the relation between reserves and oil production: annual production is multiplied by 365; for Saudi Arabia and Kuwait the country production figure is used plus half of the production of the Neutral Zone; for Canada the production level considered is that of conventional oil production.


The figures in the chapter “Per Capita Consumption” have been obtained by dividing the consumption of a given year by the population in the same year. For oil, annual consumption is multiplied by 365, before being divided by the population. The figures in the chapter “Production/Consumption ratios” have been obtained by dividing the production of a given year by consumption for the same year. It is a self sufficiency index of a country or an area.


In all the chapters, the list of the “first ten countries” is drawn up by ordering the countries on the basis of the last available year. In the chapters “Reserves/Production ratios” and “Production/Consumption ratios”, the list of the “first ten countries” is drawn up by selecting the largest producers in the last available year and ordering them on the basis of the value of the reserves/production and production/consumption ratios. In the chapter “Per Capita Consumption”, the list is drawn up by selecting the largest consumers in the last available year and ordering them by the value of per capita consumption.


In the chapters “Exports” and “Imports” of natural gas, the figures for a country’s exports and imports may differ from those reported in the chapter “International Trade” for the same country, because of the different source of information and the different calorific value attached to the cubic metre. As far as Italy is concerned, the series of gas imports (source of information: Italian Ministry for Economic Development), is not homogeneous because from 1995 to 2001 it includes imports on the basis of the contractual origin of the gas, and from 2002 on, it takes into consideration the country of physical origin.


In the chapter “International Trade” of natural gas, trade figures for the United States include also the trade of Portorico.


In the chapter “Production Quality” figures for total oil production in each area or country do not coincide with the figures in the “Production” chapter. This is due to the exclusion of natural gas liquids and extra heavy crude from the figures for the first (except for Venezuela). Moreover, it has not been possible to allocate or define total production. In some countries the ‘Ultra Light’ category also includes, in total or in part, the production of condensates. For Canada the production includes syncrude. API degree is used universally to express a crude’s relative density. The arbitrary formula used to obtain it is: API gravity = (141.5/SG at 60°F) - 131.5, where SG is the specific gravity of the fluid. Lighter the crude, higher the API gravity. The API scale was designed so that most values would fall between 10 and 70 API gravity degree. Fresh water has an API density of 10. Atmospheric distillates yields are obtained according to TBP (True Boiling Point) technique, ASTM D2892 procedure. Figures are expressed in mass percentage.


For the definition of the qualitative parameters for single crudes, the data of “Eni–R&M Division–San Donato Research Center–Downstream technologies” have been used, wherever possible. Quality levels, indicating API gravity and sulphur content, are defined as follows.


Ultra Light

API level equal to or greater than 50° and a low sulphur content

Light & Sweet

API level equal to or greater than 35° and less than 50°; sulphur content less than 0.5%

Light & Medium Sour

API level equal to or greater than 35° and less than 50°; sulphur content equal to or greater than 0.5% and less than 1%

Light & Sour

API level equal to or greater than 35° and less than 50°; sulphur content equal to or greater than 1%

Medium & Sweet

API level equal to or greater than 26° and less than 35°; sulphur content less than 0.5%

Medium & Medium Sour

API level equal to or greater than 26° and less than 35°; sulphur content equal to or greater than 0.5% and less than 1%

Medium & Sour

API level equal to or greater than 26° and less than 35°; sulphur content equal to or greater than 1%

Heavy & Sweet

API level equal to or greater than 10° and less than 26°; sulphur content less than 0.5%

Heavy & Medium Sour

API level equal to or greater than 10° and less than 26°; sulphur content equal to or greater than 0.5% and less than 1%

Heavy & Sour

API level equal to or greater than 10° and less than 26°; sulphur content equal to or greater than 1%


The chapter “Refining Industry” is divided in two parts: “Refining Capacity” and “Oil Products Balances”.


The “Refining Capacity” set of tabulations provides the following information:

- Refineries: includes asphalt and lube oriented units, when dedicated topping capacity is present. Includes condensate refineries.

- Primary Capacity: topping capacity of units included in Refineries. - Conversion Capacity (FCC eqv. mmtons): sum of conversion capacity, converted to “Catcracking (FCC ) equivalent” capacity. “FCC equivalent” capacity equals 1; other conversion capacities can be higher or lower than 1 (the equivalent factors are reported below in the next table).

- FCC eqv. (complexity ratio): ratio of Conversion Capacity (converted to FCC equivalent) over Primary Capacity, calculated on a weight basis. The higher is the complexity index, the higher is the capability of a refinery to produce high equivalent quality and value products.

- Nelson Complexity Index (NCI): is another measure of secondary conversion capacity in comparison to the primary distillation capacity. The units are rated in terms of their costs relative to the primary distillation unit. The higher is the index, the higher is the capability of a refinery to produce high quality and value products.

- Utilization rate (of primary capacity): ratio of crude runs (condensates runs are included) over Primary Capacity.

The equivalent factors for the FCC equivalent calculation, reported below, change according to the type and the configuration of the conversion unit and are from Parpinelli TECNON. The factors for the Nelson calculation are standard factors, modified as necessary by Eni. Oxygenates and Aromatics are excluded.


The “Oil Products Balances” set of tabulations provides the following information:

- Production: refinery output, net of refinery feedstocks requirements, plus liquids derived from natural gas processing (NGLs).

- Consumption: includes bunkers.

- Balance: it is the difference between Production and Consumption and corresponds to the net exports. It therefore includes: stock changes, statistical differences, refinery losses and other items included in Consumption.